Yeast (Candida)

Yeast and bacteria make up the normal flora in the gastrointestinal tract.  Competition between the two species is what maintains the balance.   Antibiotics, poor diet, insufficient soluble fiber in the diet and poor gastric acid and digestive enzyme production can result in gastric dysbiosis in which yeast overgrowth occurs in the intestinal tract.  Probiotics and antifungal medications are commonly prescribed to fight dysbiosis but it can be a long and difficult battle. 

 Research has shown that prebiotics are more effective than probiotics in most cases to resolve dysbiosis.  Prebiotics are the optimal food for the bacterial flora in the intestines, whereas probiotics contain the favorable bacteria for the intestines.  The reason prebiotics have been more effective than probiotics at reversing dysbiosis is because it doesn’t do much good to just keep reintroducing the good bacteria into the intestinal tract if you don’t provide them with their optimal food source (soluble fiber).  Yeast is a very opportunistic organism, meaning they can thrive on a wide variety of food sources.  But the favorable bacterial flora in the intestines cannot.  The optimum food for the bacteria is soluble fiber,which our diets are becoming very deficient in.  Without this optimum food source of soluble fiber, the bacteria will not flourish, resulting in yeast overgrowth due to lack of competition from the bacteria.   Of course if the dysbiosis is due to the administration of antibiotics, then a probiotic would be indicated followed with prebiotics.

 A very good prebiotic is frucotooligosaccharides (FOS).  FOS is a soluble fiber consisting of sucrose and fructose but the way the two simple sugars are bound together, our body can’t digest them but the bacteria can flourish on them.  The exception to when FOS should not be supplemented is if a bad bacteria such as Klebsiella is present in the stool as this bad bacteria will flourish on FOS as well.  So the stools must be negative for the bad bacteria before supplementing FOS. 

 The key to supplementing FOS to get the most benefit is to take 2,000-3,000 mg of FOS all at one time each day.  The reason for this is as the bacteria utilize the FOS, they produce a protein the stimulates gene expression of two very important calcium binding proteins, Calbindin D9k and Calbindin D28k.  In order to stimulate gene expression, a particular protein must be present in a finite concentration, which is achieved if 2,000 –3,000 mg of FOS are taken all at once.  The Calbindin D9k is needed for calcium and other mineral absorption from the intestines.  The Calbindin D28k is needed to protect the cells from too much calcium influx that can result in cell damage and inflammation. 

 Many doctors and parents are reporting that the gastrointestinal problems including dysbiosis have resolved in their patients and children respectively after starting Respen-A with FOS.

Pro-biotic vs Pre-biotic for dysbiosis in the gut

Many parents have reported success in getting the calcium into their child by putting it in muffin mix, pancake or waffle mix.  Heating doesn’t appear to affect it. Many children continue on the probiotics with Respen-A and many have stopped the probiotics.  Research has shown that prebiotics such as FOS are more effective than probiotics in reversing dysbiosis in the gut.  The FOS is a soluble fiber made up of sucrose and fructose but the way they are bound, we can’t digest them but they are an excellent source of food for the bacteria in our gut.  If we feed the bacteria what they thrive on the best, the bacteria will multiply and through competition keep the yeast in check returning balance to the gut.  In fact science has calculated that if you were to feed one bacterial cell what it needed and removed its waste, within a 24 hour period, that one bacterial cell would multiply to create the mass of an aircraft carrier.  So you can see that when you feed the bacteria its optimal food such as FOS, there is no need to keep supplying bacteria such as in a probiotic.  The only time you don’t want to use FOS is if your stools are positive for Klebsiella which is a bad bacteria in the gut.  You would need to get rid of the Klebsiella before taking the FOS or else it will floursih as well on the FOS. 

 One important thing about taking FOS, don’t divide up the dose as directed on the bottle to get the optimal effect of FOS.  As the bacteria eat the FOS, they produce a protein that stimulates our bodies’ gene expression of two very important calcium binding proteins, calbindin D9k and calbindin D28k.  The calbindin D9k is needed for calcium and other mineral absorption from the intestines and calbindin D28k protects the cells from too much calcium influx into the cells that can cause exitotoxicity and result in inflammation and cell damage.  Whenever you are stimulating gene expression, the protein concentration must be within a finite range.  2,000 -3,000 mg of FOS must be taken all at once in order to get this protein produced by the bacteria in the finite range to stimulate the production of the calcium binding proteins.

Soy Free Diet

The soy free diet has shown benefit in Autism Spectrum Disorders.  Soy is high in phyto-estrogens which have been shown to stimulate the estrogen receptors.  High estrogen receptor stimulation inhibits MAO-A.  Children with an ASD have decreased MAO-A activity and so by decreasing their estrogen, such as through a soy free diet, this will help prevent further inhibition of their MAO-A.  Unlike gluten and casein that may be added back into the diet in small amounts with children on Respen-A, soy should be avoided even though the child may be on Respen-A.

Casein Free Diet

The casein free diet has shown benefits similar to the gluten free diet in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.  Casein is a protein found in dairy products.  It is not a natural protein found in humans. The scientific rationale for the benefits seen from the casein free diet, is due to the hypersensitization of the mast cells that line the intestines causing them to over-react to this foreign protien, casein, when ingested.  The etiology of the hypersensitization of the mast cells is the mitochondrial deficiency caused by MAO-A deficiency, resulting in lactic acid production.  The build-up of lactic acid causes calcium phosphate to be pulled from storage compartments in the body such as the bones.  The phosphate neutralizes the acid, leaving free-unbound calcium in the blood.  The free-unbound calcium goes into the mast cells and excites them, causing them to become hypersensitive.  Normally, mast cells detecting casein in the gut would not react, but because of them being put on red-alert by the calcium, they actually over-react.   This results in an inflammatory response which contributes to digestive absorption problems.  This irritation in the gut results in more serotonin production by the gut.  (Please see the Gluten Free Diet post for the effects of increase serotonin production by the gut in ASD).

 The active ingredient in Respen-A is reserpine, which increases the activity of MAO-A, thus reducing the production of lactic acid.  This reduction in lactic acid production reduces the amout of free calcium influx into the mast cells.  Respen-A also, has an added benefit, reduces calcium by pushing it into the urine and into the bones, which in turn reduces the hypersensitivity of the mast cells.  Consequently, a child using Respen-A, overtime may find that they can tolerate some dairy products in their diet once again.

Gluten Free Diet

Many children, with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, have seen benefit from a gluten free diet.  The scientific rationale for this benefit is because gluten stimulates serotonin production and mobilization (release).  In ASD there is a deficiency in MAO-A activity, resulting in a build-up of serotonin because MAO-A breaks down serotonin into it’s active aldehyde.  This build-up of serotonin inhibits oxytocin nerve growth, increases in cortisol production, and increases beta-endorphin production, all of which are seen in ASD.  So gluten compounds the problem by stimulating the gut to produce and release more serotonin into the blood stream.  This is why a gluten free diet has been beneficial to many children with a spectrum disorder.

The active ingredient in Respen-A is reserpine.  Research shows that reserpine will double the activity of MAO-A.  Thus by increasing the activity of MAO-A with Respen-A, the serotonin level is decreased and converted into its active aldehyde metabolite.  Because of this breakdown of serotonin by MAO-A, serotonin must be replenished, such as through eating meat or taking the supplement of L-Tryptophan daily.  We have found that in some children on a gluten free diet, just eating meat or taking L-Tryptophan, isn’t adequate after being on Respen-A.  These children often show improvement in the first month to six months of using Respen-A and then they start to exhibit a return of their symptoms or become withdrawn, depressed, and sad.   We find that these children have needed to add back into their diet a little bit of gluten.  The reason is, L-Tryptophan from meat is the precursor to producing serotonin.  The serotonin that is produced, is then stored in vesicles in the cell.  The serotonin must then be released or mobilized from these vesicles into the synapse (the nerve junction), where it can be converted by MAO-A to its active aldehyde.  Gluten triggers the mobilization and release of the serotonin from the vesicles.

No EFA’s with Respen-A

No EFA Supplements When Using Respen-A™ or Respen™ Spray

Many parents have inquired as to why the need to discontinue the EFA supplements such as Flaxseed oil, Primrose oil, Fish oils and Omega3 when using the Respen-A™ disc or Respen™ Spray. We have found that these oils, which contain a high concentration of polyunsaturated fats, will negate the effects of Respen-A™ and Respen™ Spray.

A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the body works in ratios, and this is a means of checks and balances. Some of the ratios in the body are sodium to potassium, calcium to magnesium, copper to zinc, and even polyunsaturated fats to saturated fats. Polyunsaturated fats contain double bonds, which is what makes them maintain their liquid state when refrigerated. Polyunsaturated fats are structural components in the cell membrane making the cell membrane fluid and flexible. The cell membrane has an inner and outer membrane with protein channels that must be lined up between the outer and inner cell membranes so that they form a channel that transverses the cell membrane, allowing the cell to import and export things. If the cell membrane were too fluid, these protein channels would not be lined up and the cell would not be able to import and export efficiently. Thus, the cell membrane also has saturated fats in the cell membrane, which are straight chains with single bonds and act like ties or rebar that help maintain the structural position of the protein channels in the cell membrane.

The body tries to keep the polyunsaturated fats and saturated fats in a specific ratio. The body has no control over what we feed it, so if we ingest a large concentration of polyunsaturated fats such as what is in the EFA supplements, the body will burn the excess polyunsaturated fats, trying to bring it back into balance with the saturated fats. Polyunsaturated fats with double bonds create lipid peroxides when they are broken (metabolized) in the body. Lipid peroxides are neurotoxic and they inhibit monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), which is the enzyme we are trying to boost with the reserpine in Respen-A™ or Respen™ Spray.

The best way to get a balance of saturated and polyunsaturated fats, is to eat whole foods such as meat, fish, and nuts as these contain both polyunsaturated fats and saturated fats in a ratio that is more balanced for our body.

Respen-A, homeopathic treatment for Autism, requires prescription?

Many people have asked me, “If Respen-A is a homeopathic treatment, then why does it need a prescription?” The active ingredient in Respen-A is reserpine, a very old blood pressure medication. It is both an allopathic medication and a homeopathic agent as it is listed in the homeopathic compendium of the U.S. (HPUS). Some diultion strengths in the HPUS require a prescription. Also because Respen-A is a compounded product and not a manufactured product, it requires a prescription.